Human clocks. Human time… Life…

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Human existence is basically circadian. Most of us wake in the morning, sleep in the evening, and eat in between. Body temperature, metabolism, and hormone levels all fluctuate throughout the day, and it is increasingly clear that disruption of those cycles can lead to metabolic disease.

Underlying these circadian rhythms is a molecular clock built of DNA-binding proteins called transcription factors. These proteins control the oscillation of circadian genes, serving as the wheels and springs of the clock itself. Yet not all circadian cycles peak at the same time — some peak in the morning and others in the evening. The question, is, how does a single clock keep time in multiple phases at once? Now, thanks to new findings from researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, we know.

In the current issue of the journal Cell, Mitchell Lazar, MD PhD, the Sylvan Eisman Professor of Medicine and director of the Institute for Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism and his team report the results of a genome-wide survey of circadian genes and genetic regulatory elements called enhancers. These are key parts of the “dark matter” of the genome; rather than encoding proteins, they control the expression of genes.

Led by postdoctoral researchers Bin Fang, Logan Everett and Jennifer Jager, Lazar’s team took advantage of new tools based on high-density DNA sequencing to measure the activity of enhancers throughout the day in the livers of mice. They found that many enhancers, like circadian genes themselves, have a daily oscillation that is in phase with nearby genes — both the enhancer and gene activity peak at the same time each day. The enhancer activities, in turn, are governed by distinct proteins called transcription factors. Grouping the enhancers into eight three-hour phases based on when they peak, the group asked which factors are capable of binding to the enhancers in each set. Remarkably, the team found that enhancers that are in the same phase tend to bind the same transcription factors. (1)

Everything in nature tuned with each other.
We are all following a clock.
We are all following many clocks.
And these clocks are winded together.

Two pendulums on the same wall.
Earth and the Moon looking at each other.
Humans living together till they die.

Tik tak tik tak tik tak…

Author: skakos

Spiros Kakos (or Spyros Kakos or Spyridon Kakos) [Σπύρος Κάκος] is a thinker located in Athens, Greece. He has been the Chief Editor of Harmonia Philosophica since its inception. Spiros has a diploma in Chemical Engineering, an MSc in Advanced Materials' Technology, an MBA in Decisions' Science, a phD in the use of conductive polymers in PCB industry and is still learning. He also worked as a technical advisor and a researcher in the Advanced Materials sector for many years in the past. In his free time he develops software solutions and contributes to the open source community. He is the creator of Huo Chess, one of the smallest micro-chess programs ever that is perfect for educational purposes. He believes that science and religion are two sides of the same coin and is profoundly interested in Religion and Science philosophy, as well as the philosophy of the irrational. His philosophical work is mainly concentrated on an effort to free thinking of "logic" and reconcile all philosophical opinions under the umbrella of the "One" that Parmenides - one of the first thinkers - visualized. Since our thought is dictated by our assumptions, the only way to free it and know cosmos as it is, is to think irrationally and destroy everything we have built. The "Harmonia Philosophica" articles program is the tool that will accomplish that. Life's purpose is to be defeated by greater things. And the most important things in life are illogical. We must fight the dogmatic belief in "logic" if we are to stay humans. We should stop thinking in order to think. Credo quia absurdum!

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