Murphy’s Law – Thinking = Formulating reality?


The one time I want to get a taxi, I cannot see any passing by even though there were millions of those yellow things passing by before. When I need a spoon all I see around are forks. I want to open the toothpaste card box and I open it from the wrong side.

Some call them “Murphy’s Laws”. Most think they are some kind of a joke or just a peculiar thing to talk for when you are with friends drinking coffee.

But this “funny” and “peculiar” thing can actually hide something extremely fundamental which modern science does not want to accept: the fact that human thinking is not just the passive acceptance of “reality” but instead what actively formulates reality! How else can you explain the extreme success of Murphy’s Laws in prediction?

> See mindbrain and reality related posts in Harmonia Philosophica Blogger portal

Human Consciousness and the end of Materialism

This article provides some insight on how and why the explanation of human consciousness might be the reason for a paradigm shift of science away from materialism.


I. Introduction – Scope

For many years now the sector of science called “neuroscience” tries to solve the mystery of human consciousness. Even though there is some progress in the analysis of the mechanisms of our brain, the key to human consciousness remains well hidden. “At least for now”, some scientists say…

This article does not attempt to provide an exhaustive record of all knowledge existing concerning the human mind. My goal is to just provide some insight on why the explanation of human consciousness lies beyond the limits of exact science as it is currently based on materialism. It is shown that only a drastic paradigm-shift of science away from the materialistic dogma can help us truly understand the nature of what seems to make us who we really are.

Due to the nature of the subject, this article (knol) is constantly updated. Any comments from readers are welcomed and will be answered as soon as I have the time.

Electrons and electomagnetic fields race through our brain.
Is that “consciouness”…? Or is consciousness controlling those electrons?

II. Why neuroscience will Never explain Consciousness

Some scientists today believe that they can explain the “mind” by just analyzing the mechanisms of the “brain”. They seem to believe that by finding how neurons interact with each other will lead them to fully understand the nature of human consciousness.

This view is based on the dogma of materialism. And it is the main purpose of true philosophy to find, pinpoint and show the underlying dogmas of all views, criticize them and discuss about them. I hereby provide a list of arguments that show why human consciousness cannot be explained by merely explaining the chemical-physical mechanisms of neuron activity in our brain. I do not claim that everything I write is correct, or that I hold the key to ultimate truth (if such thing even exists). But I do call every reader to read carefully and think of what dogmas his opinion is based on. Simply knowing that makes us better humans.

1. Finding the correlation of brain and mind does not mean we found the cause of the existence of mind or consciousness

There is a deeper problem concerning the human consciousness. It may be that the subjectivity of consciousness and the lack of a formal definition do not prevent neuroscience from finding the “Neural Correlates of Consciousness” (also known as NCC). But what does it actually mean to find these correlates? Ideally, neuroscience should explain facts about consciousness in terms of facts about the neural activity. If not then we are only rationally justified in believing that brain and mind are somehow correlated, not that human consciousness is in fact a wholly natural phenomenon. [1]Christof Koch, a professor of biology and engineering at the California Institute of Technology, is a serious scientist who takes consciousness seriously. He seeks what he calls the “neural correlates of consciousness,” which generally means the kinds of electrical activities that occur in the brain each and every time that a certain conscious experience occurs. Koch has made the neural correlates of consciousness real science by bringing progressively greater precision to assessing what’s happening in the brain, in real time, when subjective experiences are sensed or felt. But it important to note that correlation is not cause, as Koch correctly points out. And the correlations so far describe specific sensations, not a unified consciousness.[2]The difference is important to note. It is a mistake to confuse one thing for another: many things can be interconnected but that does not automatically create a cause-effect relationship between them. In any event, can science, sticking with pure biology and its underlying chemistry and physics, produce a full theory of mind or consciousness? The so far correlations found do not prove anything concerning the true nature of consiousness. We are still far away from knowing what the cause of consciousness is, let alone say that it is only a “natural” cause based on electricity currents. Confusing correlation with cause is a “mistake” or – even worse – an offspring of hard materialistic dogmatism…

After all, who can say that a thought is made up of electons without challenging his/her logic? For example can the thought “the circumference of a circle is equal to 2πr” be made up of electricity?

Is a thought made up of something material? How can that be? Electrons are electrons. Neurons are neurons. A thought is a thought and cannot be made of the abovementioned materials, because simply we understand thought as something different than these “things”. Many electrons form “many electrons”, not a human “thought”. Can really the thought “I want to eat” be made of things you actually eat?

2. Neuroscience seems to explain only things defined in functional terms. Consciousness cannot be given a functional definition so it cannot be neuroscientifically explained

Neuroscience is very useful and can of course be used to explain many things. For instance, memory in sea slugs is explainable in terms of synaptic strength and gene expression. But it seems only things defined in functional terms can be explained (e.g.the neural mechanism that explains memory function).The problem is then the following: consciousness cannot be given a functional definition so it cannot be neuroscientifically explained. [1]

Assume that we have discovered some neural mechanism. Or even better, assume we have discovered all the neural mechanisms that exist. These mechanisms will explain a whole host of psychological functions (e.g. the workings of memory). Among these there will be functions we associate with consciousness. For example, the function of bodily damage to bring us in an internal state that causes us to withdraw our hand form the fire, where we associate our internal state with being in the conscious state of feeling pain. The problem is that the neural mechanisms only concern the causal transactions among states and not the nature of the states themselves. That is, the neural story fails to capture what is distinctive about pain, namely that it hurts. We can put this differently. The neural mechanistic explanation of the supposed pain would work just as well for a creature that is like us physically but that doesn’t feel any hurt when it “suffers” bodily damage. That creature could havethe same mechanism to indicate that it suffers damage, but have no “hurt” as part of its “pain” definition.This shows that the neural explanation is blind to the state of consciousness: its best explanations can ever only capture input-out causal relations.In that way neuroscience may explain aspects of consciousness, even if it cannot ultimately place consciousness in the material world. [1]

In order to be within the scope of scientific inquiry, consciousness must have some functional aspect and yet people argue that it hasn’t.

Whereas we have good reason to believe consciousness is a material phenomenon since it correlates so well with neural activity, we also have reason to believe the material and the conscious belong to different levels. [1]

Many electrons form a set of “many electrons”.
Many neurons form a set of “many neurons”.
Is is “logical” to claim that a thought is made up of electrons?
Many electrons cannot be a “thought”…


3. No matter how good the correlations of brain to mind are, they could never literally be “mind”

David Chalmers, an Australian philosopher of mind,claims that consciousnessis not an accidental derivative of reality working randomly but a fundamental part of reality existing permanently. For decades, there had been a progressive demystification of consciousness. But for Chalmers no matter how much neuroscience we learn, we will never explain consciousness.

No matter how good the correlations of brain to mind are, they could never literally be “mind”. It seems that there must be something extra in consciousness, which can never be explained by anything physical, chemical, or biological (at least on those sciences in the way they are defined today).

A good example would be the following: Water comes from pipes (correlation). If the water pipes are damaged, there is less or no water. Yet the pipes do not generate water.

Water is not identical to a property of the pipes. The pipes are conduits of water. Likewise the brain is a conduit of consciousness.[3]

4. Self-consciousness feels like more than the sum of its cells (or why reductionism is wrong or why neurobiology does not explain the qualitative properties of consciousness)

Neuroscience is reductionist, and it plans to “solve” consciousness by finding its phsyical substrate. Butthis method is hopelessly flawed, and for a simple reason: self-consciousness, at least when felt from the inside, feels like more than the sum of its cells.Any explanation of our experience solely in terms of our neurons will never explain our experience, because we don’t experience our neurons. To believe otherwise is to indulge in a simple category mistake.[4]Our experience of us being “us” is something that transcends the sum of each individual neuron activity, it is something more than the set of electical currents passing through neuron connections. I do not know the whole explanation now, but if we believe what neurologists say, we could have a Printed Circuit Board with specific design “feel” and realize “itself” like we do…However a PCB cannot “feel” and cannot have a consciousness, for the same reason that a stone – no matter how wellit is designed – cannot have “life” in it…You cannot explain apples with oranges.

Anotherattempt to counter reductionism comes from a broad category of theorists who look to the relatively new science of complexity, or emergence, to explain the brain’s relation to the mind. For these scientists and philosophers, the notion that consciousness emerges from the activities of the brain is not in question. But to say that consciousness can be reduced to the brain would be a category mistake. Emergence theory holds that interactions between lower-order phenomena can give birth to higher-order phenomena with properties which cannot themselves be reduced to the lower-order interactions.

Consciousness is clearly an emergent property. The latest evidence is that there is no master site of consciousness or control in the brain. If that is the case looking to the subatomic level is clearly a move in the wrong direction. It makes as much sense as trying to understand the properties of water by studying hydrogen and oxygen.Because water emerges from the combination of the two, studying its components tells us little about water itself. Just as the wetness of water cannot be found in the hydrogen and oxygen molecules that make it up, so the complex qualities of mind, like reason, decision-making, reflection, and emotion cannot be found in the behavior of our neurons.The advantage of this way of thinking is that while it does not deny the biological roots of mind, it nonetheless acknowledges the validity of higher orders of human experience. [5]

During the compilation of this knol, millions of neurons are working in my brain. Molecules use chemicals to transfer messages and everything in my brain is working to produce the result you see. At the same time, on another (higher)level, I am thinking about what to write next. I decide what to do, why I want to finish this article.

Confusing what happens at an microscopic level with what decisions I make as a person at a higher levelis simply a mistake.

“if mental phenomena are in fact nothing more than
emergent properties and functions of the brain,
their relation to the brain is fundamentally unlike every other
emergent property and function in nature”

–B. Allan Wallace, The Taboo of Subjectivity: Toward a New Science of Consciousness (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 136.

Another problem stated by David Chalmers (1995) is that while cognitive neuroscience can explain how the brain enables informational processing of the mind, it is incapable of explaining the qualitative experience that accompanies it, nor the mere fact that it does. No matter what knowledge we gain about the visual processing of colour and how precicely we are able to describe it, the quality of sensory experience of red cannot be known unless experienced. As ancient Sufi would say about coffee: “He who tastes, knows; he who tastes not, knows not”.[6]

And we should not forget about subjectivity. No other emergent property (e.g. liquidity) has subjectivity. [3] However subjectivity is part of human consciousness.

III. Arguments in favor of a non-materialistic explanation

As scientists try to unlock the mysteries of consciousness, the old debate about monism-dualism comes into the surface. Here I present some cases and evidence that could be used in favor of an idealistic (i.e. non-materialistic) explanation of consciousness. Science tries to explain phenomena that are spiritual with tools that are designed to unlock the mysteries of matter.If a scientific theory has the underlying dogma that no spirit exists, then how can it find spirit even if it is there? Quantum mechanics and Near-Death Experiences provide a strange hint towards what seems to be the right direction. Note the use of the word “seems”. It is true that we can not be certain for the nature of consciousness with the things we know now and that is exactly the point of the article: to show that research on this topic must continue with a mind free of any dogmas and prejudice. And the belief in the non-existence of spirit can be as dogmatic as the belief in the existence of spirit…

1. Near-Death Experiences (NDE)

Perhaps the most intriguing challenge to the neuroscientific mainstream is emerging from the growing body of research into what physician Raymond Moody dubbed “near-death experiences” or NDEs. Throughout the ages and across cultures, people have reported a variety of mystical phenomena surrounding the dying process. But with the technological explosion of the twentieth century, one medical advance in particular has opened a significant window into the phenomenology of dying—namely, our ability to resuscitate people, to bring them back from the dead.[5] Over the past several decades, a number of researchers have been exploring this terrain, yielding a remarkably consistent picture of what happens when people make a temporary sojourn through death’s door. Thanks to mass media coverage of the phenomenon, most of us are by now familiar with the basic outline. Upon being pronounced dead, the patient experiences themselves outside of the body witnessing the scene of the accident or operating room from above. From here they at some point begin moving into darkness, or sometimes a dark tunnel, at the other end of which they are met by deceased relatives and perhaps a “being of light” who then prompts them to undertake a review of their life. In most cases, there is an encounter with “the light” which is usually accompanied by feelings of overwhelming joy, love, and peace, after which they either discover or decide that it is not their time to die, and are returned to their body. Although not all NDEs contain all of the above elements (and in fact, some patients even report harrowing encounters with hellish realms quite the opposite of the more common positive NDE), for most who have the experience, it is a life-transforming event, leading to a radical change in values, and a loss of the fear of death. [5]It’s easy to understand why these experiences would have such a profound psychological and spiritual impact.

After an episode like that, who could doubt the existence of consciousness beyond the body and the reality of life after death?

But as neuropsychiatrist and renowned near-death researcher Peter Fenwick points out, “the simple fact that people have these experiences does not in itself prove anything one way or the other regarding the existence of consciousness outside the brain”. Simply put, how do we know the NDE is not just a brain-generated illusion? According to the “dying brain hypothesis” as put forward by psychologist Susan Blackmore, all of the specific phenomena associated with the classic NDE can be accounted for by established brain responses to the “severe stress, extreme fear, and cerebral anoxia” that would naturally accompany a brush with death.

But riddled throughout the NDE literature are accounts that seem to suggest that there is more going on in these experiences than can as yet fit into the materialist picture. In one widely reported case, a post-operative patient correctly identified the nurse who had removed his dentures and the drawer she had placed them in—while he was in a coma. In another, an unconscious patient had an out-of-body experience after which she accurately described a tennis shoe she had seen on the outside ledge of a third-floor hospital window. The most dramatic case to date is probably the now famous story of an Arizona woman named Pam Reynolds. In a last-ditch attempt to save Reynolds from a brain aneurysm that threatened her life, doctors performed a rare and dangerous “standstill” operation in which they lowered her body temperature to below 60 degrees F, stopped her heart and respiration, and drained all the blood from her body and brain. She was, by any reasonable definition, brain dead. Her EEG was a flatline and her brainstem showed no response to the “clickers” placed in her ears. Yet, following her recovery from the operation, doctors learned that not only had she undergone a classic NDE, but she was also able to recount with astonishing accuracy many of the details of the operation, from the surgical instruments used to the conversation between the surgeons and nurses.[5]

All of the abovehave led prominent researchers, such as the late Nobel-winning neuroscientist Sir John Eccles, to propose a dualist view of the problem, arguing that the human mind and consciousness may in fact constitute a separate, undiscovered entity apart from the brain.[13]

“No single brain area is active when we are conscious and idle when we are not. Nor does a specific level of activity in neurons signify that we are conscious. Nor is there a chemistry in neurons that always indicates consciousness.”

Mario Beauregard and Denyse O’Leary, The Spiritual Brain: A Neuroscientist’s Case for the Existence of the Soul (New York: HarperCollins, 2007), 109. [3]

2. Modern science and consciousness

For biologists like Rupert Sheldrake, one of the most powerful explanatory tools for understanding the workings of life and mind is the physical notion of the “field”, first introduced to science by Michael Faraday in the 19th century. “From electromagnetic fields, to gravitational fields to quantum matter fields, these field theories have taken over physics in such a way that everything is now seen as energy within fields”, according toSheldrake. “As Sir Karl Popper put it, ‘Through modern physics, materialism has transcended itself, because matter is no longer the fundamental explanatory principle. Fields and energy are.’ So then when we come to the mind and the brain, what ifthe brain is a system that’s organized by fields as well?”[5]Explaining consciousness with energy fields is something that could provide an explanation that fits to many of the properties of consciousness we see.

However the main argument in favour of the non-materialistic nature of our consciousness comes from the modern quantum mechanics. In quantum mechanics we have observed that the observer can affect the outcome of the experiment just by looking at it (see the infamous two slits experiment). However this kind of effect to the outcome of the experimentis not possible by material relactions between particles. Doesn’t that mean that our consciousness is made of something non-materialistic as Neumann postulated?

In a few words, idealism and dualism has much less to account for than materialism. As KeithWard said, unlike materialism, what dualism doesn’t have to do, is explain away the experience of every human being…

We are something that we all understand it to be something more than a sum of voltage or particles moving. And that is the best argument in favor of a more different view than pure materialism is…

A lot of debate is also going on related to Quantum Mechanics and the possible role of human consciousness on the result of a measurement. [11] One interpretation of the problem of the “wave-function collapse” states that the “thing” that actually causes the wave-function to collapse is the consciousness of the human observer. This is also known as the Wigner interpretation. [12] This theory is compatible with the empirical data (as any other of the more than 10 active potential quantum mechanics interpretations) [18] and it is more philosophically sound, solving many problems of quantum mechanics and the observation problem. Consider for example the Double Slit experiment. The electron actually “chooses” to be a wave or a particle only after the observation. However what is “observation”? If one considers observation to simply be the interaction with the measurement instruments (i.e. the interaction of non-living matter with non-living matter), then why the electron does not “collapse” to wave/particle due to its interaction with all the physical elements of the experiment apparatus?


Illustrative paper (source) for the role of consciousness in the collapse of the wavefunction.

It seems that consciousness actually causes the electron to “decide” and that is something one cannot ignore. Something similar to the above experiments and equally important, is observed in the Quantum Zeno effect in which an unstable particle, if observed continuously, will never decay. [19]

People I talk with about quantum mechanics just state that “Wigner’s interpretation is old”. But when I ask them why this means that it is wrong, I get silence for response. I do not claim of course that this is the ultimate and final solution to the measurement problem. However I do not stand listening to people who just reject specific interpretation simple because they do not fit to their beliefs. An interesting side-note is that Wigner actually shifted to more materialistic interpretations (and away from the idea that consciousness causes collapse) in his later years. And it is important to note that this did not happen because the interpretation proved wrong (in any case can that ever happen for an interpretation? – another interesting question) but partly because he was embarrassed that the “consciousness causes collapse” idea can lead to a kind of solipsism. [17] Dogmatism runs deep in modern scientific establishment and any idea that threatens it is either ridiculed or discarded. Changing way of thinking in the sciences of the mind will be difficult but in any case inevitable. Unless we believe that electrons can “observe”…

3. Function has many definitions

William James argued that all the problems arise from the monolithic way in which we understand the function of the brain. Materialistic science – he said – can think of the brain function only in the “function that produces something” way. However “function” can have other meanings as well.Many things function in a way to “allow things to happen”, like when your hand pulls a trigger so as to remove the barrier holding the gun to go off. Function could also mean “function to allow transmission of things”, like a coloured glass (the function of which is to allow the transmission of light through it). The brain could act in one of the other two ways of “function”, thus being simply a way to allow souls to manifest themselfs in this world. [14]

A very interesting theory indeed. Especially if one takes into account that it is true that modern science has a very frightening way to impose specific definitions on things which can be defined in many other ways…

4. The zombie argument

It must be said that the main argument in favor of a more spiritual interpretation of consciousness is related to what we “feel” every day: that we “are” our self and not a set of machinery working. Our brain is not a set of electrons, because a set of electrons is just “a set of electrons”, not a thinking entity! We are not zombies, we are thinking human beings doing more than just feeling and reacting according to physical laws without being conscious of what we do. (source) (source)

If physicalism was right and if indeed everything we did could be explained by the action-reaction mechanistic model of our body, then there would be no room for what we feel and “know” that we have: that “thing” which makes us humans, that “thing” which makes us something more than simple zombies…

However we know that we do not just react to things like zombies.

We know that we do not just live according to automated processes and physical laws.We know that we are who we are. I know that I am “I” who speaks and not the physical laws governing the electrons in my brain. I know that I am the one writing now and not the physical laws governing the universe. I know that I have free will and that what I write here is “mine” (and not product of a machine in the form of a human body with no intellect or consciousness), as you know that what I write here is “mine” and you will write a comment to “me” complaining about what I wrote…

IV. There is more than explaining things bottom-up

As Templetonprize- winning cosmologist George Ellis told: “The standard mistake that fundamentalists make is to posit a partial cause as the whole cause. Yes, the neurons are there. That’s a partial cause of what’s going on. What these neuroscientists are missing, though, is the top-down action in the brain, which is the part that gives life its actual meaning. And if you only choose to look from the bottom up you’ll never see that meaning. Think of a jumbo jet flying. The bottom-up view of why it flies is because the particles are impacting the wing from below and moving a bit slower than the particles above the wing. The top-down version of why the plane is flying is because someone decided to build the plane, employed a lot of people to use computer aided design tools for the design ofthe plane and then a lot more people to build it. At the same level of why the plane is flying lies the fact that the pilot is sitting at the controls and is making it fly. Some physicists tend to miss both the same-level view and the topdown view.

And it’s the same with these neuroscientists. To return to the flight analogy, they would say that all that’s making the pilot fly is the firing of some neurons in his brain. But then they would be missing the fact that actually he had decided to be a pilot when he was a boy.He got enthusiastic about it; he raised the money for his training and all the rest of it. They just mess all of that up. They are unable to see those higher levels because they’re focused on the lower levels.”[5]

Materialists point out that brain damage affects the mind (bottom-up causation). This does not show that the mind reduces to the brain: compare dropping a phone when someone is speaking. The phone does not generate the voice, it transmits it.

The brain is necessary to transmit thoughts. It does not follow it generates them. The mind cannot be the same as the brain, because the mind ALSO has a top-down causal influence on the brain(cognitive therapies exploiting neuroplasticity) and the immune system (psychoneuroimmunology).[3]Systematic neuroscientific study of the power of the mind has shown that “the results of these [neuroimaging] studies strongly supports the view that the subjective nature and intentional content…of mental processes (e.g. thoughts, feelings, beliefs, volition) significantly influence the functioning and plasticity of the brain…mentalistic variables have to be seriously taken into account to reach a correct understanding of the neurophysiological bases of behavior in humans.”[7] [3]

In other words, the mind can affect the brain and vice versa.

“willful, mindful effort can alter brain function, and…such self-directed brain changes—neuroplasticity—are a genuine reality… In other words, the arrow of causation relating brain and mind must be bidirectional.”

Jeff Schwartz, The Mind and the Brain, 94-95. [3]

Other problems addressed by mind-based therapies, verified by brain-scans include:

(1) Depression and sadness. (2) Tourette’s syndrome. (3) Stroke rehabilitation. (4) Focal hand dystonia. (5) Dyslexia. (6) Panic disorder. (7) Spider phobia. (8) Stress reduction. (9) Follow up care for cancer patients. (10) The placebo effect. [3]

All these cases show that the mind can take control of the brain and lead to changes in it. So there is not only bottom-up, but also top-to-bottom causation. And this means that mind cannot be reduced to brain, it is not the same as the brain…

Materialism is the underlying dogma of modern neuroscience optimism that it will explain everything concerning the human mind

“The most striking feature is how much of mainstream [materialistic] philosophy of mind is obviously false….[I]n the philosophy of mind, obvious facts about the mental, such as that we all really do have subjective conscious mental states…are routinely denied by many…of the advanced thinkers in the subject.”

John Searle, The Rediscovery of Mind (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992), 3.

“Nowhere in the laws of physics or in the laws of the derivative sciences,
chemistry and biology, is there any reference to consciousness or mind.”

John Eccles and Daniel Robinson, The Wonder of Being Human: Our Brain and Our Mind (New York: Free Press, 1984), 37.

All contemporary Neuroscience is based on classical Physics. No surprise that it derives a view of the brain as a set of mechanical laws: that is the “only” view that classical Physics can derive. No surprise that it cannot explain how consciousness arises, since there is no consciousness in classical Physics: it was erased from the study of matter by Descartes’ dualism (that mind and matter are separate), on which foundations Newton erected classical Physics (the science of matter, which does not deal with mind). By definition, Descartes’ dualism predicts that mind cannot be explain from matter, and Newton’s Physics is an expression of dualism. Which means that dualism predicts that Newton’s Physics cannot explain mind. Neuroscientists who are looking for consciousness miss that simple syllogism: they are looking for consciousness using a tool that is labeled “this tool does not deal with consciousness”.[8]

For all the evidence neuroscience seems to present for the case that the brain creates the mind, the reality is that nobody has yet been able to explain, let alone demonstrate, how it could actually do such a thing.

And although this doesn’t seem to be persuading the neuroscientific community at large to question its materialistic assumptions, there are a number of scientists on whom the implications of this fact have not been lost.Emerging from the frontiers of a variety of scientific fields, there is a growing movement of pioneers who are seeking to counter the reductionist tendency in biology in general and brain science in particular. What they all have in common is a passion for preserving our humanity in the face of the mechanistic /materialisticworldview, and a willingness to fiercely critique the dogmatic tendencies of current scientific orthodoxy.[5]One can read my KnolLimits of Sciencefor more on the underlying dogmas of science and how the affect and distortour worldview.

Many scientists today presume materialism will provide the right answers prior to investigating the facts. Are they open to following the evidence wherever it leads? [3]

It is not that the methods and institutions of [empirical] science somehow compel us to accept a material explanation of the phenomenal world, but on the contrary, that we are forced by our a priori adherence to material causes… [9]

But only a bad detective argues “The murderer can’t be in the basement — because I’m afraid to look there.”

Some materialists admit that Materialism cannot be shown to be valid a priori. Instead, they claim that Materialism has had such an impressive track-record in solving problems, we should assume it will continue to succeed.

But Materialism doesnot have such an impressive track-record:

Christian theology, not materialism, gave birth to modern science. Great scientists such as Newton, Keplerand Galileo tried to find the physical laws governing the universe in an attempt to unravel God’s master plan of the cosmos… Materialism conflicts with the rationality of science: The dogma “in the beginning there was nothing, nothing created something and now we have only some electorns and protons moving around randomly” cannot explain the existence of all-powerful universal physical laws. Theism supports the rationality of science: The existence of universal physical laws can be explained by the theory of a First Cause or a great Designer. The failure of materialism to account for the mind is one of the most staggering examples of how dogmas can hinder the progress of science if we fail to see them.[3] Artificial Intelligence was supposed to deliver translating programs, robots that can interact freely with humans under any conditions and General Problem Solving algorithms. It has failed in all these, despite the initial optimist, which proved to be false. Even though computers can roughly translate very specific technical documents, they fail to comprehend the simplest of human dialogues… [10]

The abovementioned exaples show that materialism is not as “successful” as some people think.

Science must re-examine its basis and see what it can “discover” if it turns away from the dogma that “only matter exists in the universe”… After all, the materialistic dogma could never give us the details of the subject-object (human-matter) relationship…

“The culture of popular science is one of unidirectional skepticism… It is skeptical of any idea that spirituality corresponds to anything outside ourselves, but surprisingly gullible about any reductionist explanation of it.”

Mario Beauregard and Denyse O’Leary, The Spiritual Brain, 91.


Taken together, alternative theories seem to present a formidable case for the scientific establishment to reckon with. But the materialistic bias in western science runs deep. And just howexactly it will or even might be overturned remains anybody’s guess. Some feel that one of the more intriguing candidates for the proverbial backbreaking straw lies in the nature of the mind/body problem itself. As futurist and popular science author Peter Russell suggests in From Science to God, “I now believe this is not so much a hard problem as an impossible problem—impossible, that is, within the current scientific worldview.

Our inability to account for consciousness is the trigger that will, in time, push Western science into what the American philosopher Thomas Kuhn called a “paradigm shift”.Is it possible that it will be science’s failure to solve the mind/body problem that will ultimately be materialism’s undoing? Could neuroscience’s bold attempt to penetrate the mysteries of the human psyche be that one step too far that brings the entire atheistic-materialistic science dogmatism crashing to the ground?[5]

Neuroscience might end up supporting humanity’s spiritual aspirations in a way no one expected. By exposing the inner mechanisms behind our human personalities and by finding its limitations, it may be inadvertently helping to clear the way for the discovery of that “spirituality”which the great masters have always said that lies beyond them…


  1. The Language of Science – Consciousness, Jakob Hohwy, Department of Philosophy, Monash University
  2. Can Brain Explain Mind?, Dr. Robert Lawrence Kuhn
  3. Ramachandran on Consciousness, Jonah Lehrer
  4. Neuroscience, Consciousness, and the Soul, Craig Hamilton
  5. Does Neuroscience Leave Room for God?, Dr. Angus J. L. Menuge, Concordia University Wisconsin ()
  6. Cognitive neuroscience and the “Mind-Body problem”, Grega Repovs, University of Ljubljana, Department of psychology, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  7. Richard Lewontin, “Billions and Billions of Demons,” review of The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark by Carl Sagan, New York Review of Books, January 9, 1997, pp. 28-32.
  8. Quantum Consciousness, Piero Scaruffi
  9. Mind does really matter: evidence from neuroimaging studies of emotional self-regulation, psychotherapy, and placebo effect, Beauregard M., Prog Neurobiol. 2007 Mar;81(4):218-36. Epub 2007 Feb 9. Review, PMID: 17349730 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
  10. Early Work in AI, by Eyal Reingold and Johnathan Nightingale
  11. Measurement in quantum mechanics [Wikipedia article]
  12. Consciousness causes collapse [Wikipedia article]
  14. Human Immortality: Two Supposed Objections to the Doctrine (the Ingersoll Lecture, 1897), William James
  17. Michael Esfeld, (1999), Essay Review: Wigner’s View of Physical Reality, published in Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 30B, pp. 145–154, Elsevier Science Ltd.
  18. London and E. Bauer, “La théorie de l’observation en mécanique quantique” (1939), English translation in Quantum Theory and Measurement, edited by J.A. Wheeler and W.H. Zurek, Princeton University, Princeton, 1983, pp. 217–259.
  19. Sudarshan, E. C. G.; Misra, B. (1977). “The Zeno’s paradox in quantum theory”. Journal of Mathematical Physics. 18 (4): 756–763. DOI:10.1063/1.523304.

The dictatorship of the science of psychiatry

The purpose of this article is to show how medicine and, more in particular, psychiatry is more and more becoming the new “dictator” of human affairs. It shows how medicine paid by pharmaceutical companies is something that should trouble us. It demonstrates how psychiatrists are the tools of modern societies to define the “proper” way of thinking and behaving, via containing the people who behave in an unorthodox way that we cannot explain.


Author: Spiros Kakos

Harmonia Philosophica Facebook page

Religion-Science Philosophy articles series

If you talk to God, you are praying; If God talks to you, you have schizophrenia.

Thomas S. Szasz, The Second Sin, Anchor/Doubleday, Garden City, NY. 1973, Page 113.

Science as a Dogma

Many people argue that religion is dogmatic while science is not. My goal is to show that science can be as dogmatic as religion and that free-thinking people should be always careful not to believe everything “official” science says without analyzing it first with their own logic. Unfortunately societies use both religion and science to promote a specific agenda and that is what is happening in our civilization with psychiatry. What we call “official” science today could be laughed by tommorow. Our duty as thinking human beings is to think independently and try to make our own mind at least for the things we can.

Science, like Religion, can be dogmatic if practiced incorrectly. Nowadays many scientists dogmatically believe that the soul does not exist, that sciencecan answer everything (even though Godel has proven otherwise – see my knol Limitations of Science), that we are programmed by our instincts like every animal. Although not every scientist thinks that way, the fact that some professions or scientists’ groups (like medicine or psychiatry) are dominated by materialistic narrow-thinking people has some peculiar effects that I will analyze below. If science is the art of doubting everything and not being dogmatic, then modern medicine and psychiatry should change how they think…

Brain MRI image

Important note: As I mention in body of the article, the purpose of this Knol is not to give medical advice. I am not a professional trained doctor and do not hold any degree in medicine whatsoever. I am a thinking person and chemical engineer though and can understand a valid argument what I see it.

The purpose of this article is to arise public awareness on the way mental illness is regarged today and the critiques of that “way of thought”. All things written here have supporting bibliography. I am not telling anyone not to go to the doctor. In case of trouble or indications of any illness everyone should go to the doctor (I do the same as well). And it should be clear to everyone that one should always trust his/her doctor than an online article. However, as the things some known psychiatrists (e.g. professor Szasz) say suggest, asking more than one doctor could prove useful sometimes…

Paid Medicine

During the last years we have witnessed a vast increase in the expenses for medicine worldwide. More and more people feel “sick” and seek the help of a specific drug. That is something that is – up to a great point – driven by pharmaceutical companies. All normal values for various human body parameters (like for example the cholesterol) are getting smaller and smaller each year, thus leading many of us to medication that we would not need if based on the previous’ year values!

One may argue that new researched indicate those new values and that we should listen to our doctors. I agree that one should listen to his/her doctor!I also listen to my doctor! The reason is simple: the doctors are the only professionals who have the right training so as to advise you on medical matters!

But what happens when you see that most doctor’s medical conferences are paid by pharmaceutical companies? What should we think when we realize that most research on the proper values of cholesterol are also supported financially by the pharmaceutical companies which produce the drugs our doctor says we should get? Recently Harvard Medical school pinpointed the problem and asked for more transparency in its dealings with pharmaceuticals[1]. Is paid science “free” science? And more importantly, does paid science pose any danger – whatsoever – to our health? What if the one doctor you visit is paid by a pharmaceutical company to promote a new drug, while the drug that best fits your case is another one? And – even worse, what if you don’t even need a drug to get well?

Are you feeling anxious about a deadline at your work, or an exam? Do you feel worried about an interview or an upcoming important date? If yes, the “official” psychiatry says that you suffer from a disease called “disturbance of general social worry” and even recommends a drug you must take! So worrying about something in your sociallife has been “defined” as “not-normal” by the psychiatric society (it is important to note that what is a disease and what is not is defined via democratic processes and voting and not by hard scientific data!). [2] Should everyone worrying for his first date take drugs? Listen to your doctor, but be careful not to fall into the trap of what is called “scientism”. Maybe it would be nice if you also asked the opinion of other 2-3 doctors who are paid / related to different pharmaceutical companies or even someone who is not paid by any such company.

Thomas Szasz, Schizophrenia: The Sacred Symbol of Psychiatry (1979) [3]

Mad people or Annoying people?

Scientific dogmatism is more intense in the field of psychiatry, as it will be illustrated below.

The notion of “mental illness” is a very common notion among people. We all think that mentally ill people exist and that we should treat these people as sick people needing attention. One would be very surprised to know that there are professors of psychiatry who deny the idea of “mental illness”.

In particular, some leading psychiatrists argue that the so common notion of “mental illness” is nothing more than a fantastic (i.e. “not real”) idea invented by societies in order to control their members inside some specific boundaries. All those people who think and act differently are simply named “mad” and in that way society controls unwanted ways of thinking.

Take for example a person who kills himself. Most psychiatrists would say that a man who commits suicide is crazy or, to put it more politely, “mentally ill”. Why would they say such a thing? Why is everyone so sure that some kind of mental disorder and are not willing to even discuss an alternative? The answer is that the neat and clean and organized materialistic society of today would be very much startled if it realized that something beyond our material body exists. Most Darwin-fans would have a hard time accepting the fact that we are not just animals struggling for survival, but that we could give our life here for something “else” (see Russel Wallace , the founder of the evolution theory, for more on that). So the verdict is simple: the person who killed himself is crazy and we can all go back to our materialistic void lifes with no regrets…But is the case so simple as that? Is for example a noble warrior who chooses to die instead of getting away with his life a “mad” man? Generalizing is the most easy thing, but not the most correct all the times…

Another example is the case of drug addicts or criminals. Modern societies cannot accept that a person may be self-destructive, in the same way that they cannot accept the fact that a person may actually choose to commit a crime. Accepting something like that would lead to the conclusion that evil may be an integral part of human nature after all and the society cannot let people think something like that. The solution is again simple: they name those cases as cases of mental illness…

“There is no psychology; there is only biography and autobiography”

Thomas Szasz

Mind over Body?

If we do not characterize the above-mentioned people as “crazy”, then the foundations of our today’s materialistic societies will have a major problem.

The “official” dogmaof today’s physics is that everything that exists in the world is matter abiding to natural laws and nothing else. Accepting that people have free will with which they choose to harm themselfs for example, would have a devastating impact on that axiom.

The objectionsto that dogma are many: How and why do we feel that we actually choose our actions? Why and how can we be held responsible for everything “good” we do, but we are characterized as “mentally ill” when we do something bad?Do we have free will or not after all?

The “official” dogmaof medicine is that the brain cells are responsible for all mental activity. Since most medical researchers today are narrow-minded and cannot (do not want to) accept the existence of a soul in the human body, it is very natural for them to reach to the conclusion that commiting suicide can only be a result of a disorder in the brain.

The objections again are many: If everything is material-based, then why can’t we cure schizophrenia with a simple medication as other biological diseases?

The anti-psychiatric movement

Psychiatric professor Thomas Szasz (Professor of Psychiatry at the State University of New York Health Science Center in Syracuse) is a leading figure in the anti-psychiatric movement. He advocates against the idea of what we call “mental illness”. He thinks that people who we call crazy are actually people illustrating things the society does not want to “see” and that psychiatry plays the role the Holy Inquisition played in the past: to punish the ones who are unorthodox.

The only difference is that in the old days “orthodoxy” was defined by religion while now orthodoxy is defined by science…

Szasz critique

Many people critisize Szasz for having founded the Citizens Commission of Human Rights with the Church of Scientology in 1969. Although this is true, it does not mean – at least according to the official Szasz site ( ) – that Szasz is a scientologist. An anti-Scientology website calls Szasz a “useful idiot” and suggests that he played right into the hands of the Scientologist anti-medicine agenda. The website though, paints a rather different picture:

The following statement is intended as response to requests for clarification regarding Dr. Szasz’s co-founding of the Citizens Commission for Human Rights (CCHR). Thomas Szasz is not now nor has he ever been a Scientologist or a member of the Church of Scientology.

Dr. Szasz co-founded CCHR in the same spirit as he had co-founded — with sociologist Erving Goffman and law professor George Alexander — The American Association for the Abolition for Involuntary Mental Hospitalization.

Scientologists have joined Szasz’s battle against institutional psychiatry. Dr. Szasz welcomes the support of Jews, Christians, Muslims, and any other religious or atheist group committed to the struggle against the Therapeutic State. Sharing this battle does not mean that Dr. Szasz supports the unrelated principles and causes of any religious or non-religious organization. This is explicit and implicit in Dr. Szasz’s work. Everyone and anyone is welcome to join in the struggle for individual liberty and personal responsibility — especially as these values are threatened by psychiatric ideas and interventions.

So Szasz isn’t a Scientologist, even if he does pose for photos with Tom Cruise. I guess this goes in the whole “the enemy of my enemy is my friend” category. All in all, it’s a very sticky situation to untangle, which we could look at in any number of ways. [4]

It is interesting that even though many people agree with the opinions postulated by Szasz, they position themselfs against him simply because he found himself working with a group of religious people (who have their own agenda on a whole spectrum of issues completely alien to psychiatry). Asa blog on Szasz suggests: “

Instead of asking why Scientology endorses Thomas Szasz’s ideas, we should be asking why other religions do not.” Another in a long chain of interesting questions surrounding this issue…


Drawing conclusions in matters related to human mind is not easy. But the more one thinks about it, the more things seem more unclear than clear. If you hear voices then the official psychiatry might decide you are insane. If you manage to harness those voices and transform them into classical music then you might be called “genious musician”. As Lou Marinoff correctly states, one must remember that he should be considered sane until proved insane and not the opposite. [2] Search your self and listen to doctors, but try to examine the opinion of more than one before reaching to easy conslusions. If we let the majority decide upon what is sane and what is insane, then we would never have such “insane” theories like “a body in space instantly creates an invisible field which exerts power over any other body which is placed in it”…

Bibliography – Links

The purpose of the article is to stimulate thought. I am a chemical engineer researcher and not a doctor.One should listen to the medical professionals in order to learn more on what is mentioned in this article. Some interesting sources from where you could start your personal search for the “truth” (is such a thing as an “ultimate truth” actually exists) are listed below:

1.The Thomas S. Szasz Cybercenter for Liberty and Responsibility [ ].

2. Ideologie et Folie, Thomas Szasz, P.U.F., 1976.

3. La Loi, la liberte et la psychiatrie, Thomas Szasz, Payot, 1977.

4. L’Age de la folie: L’Histoire de l’hospitalisation psychiatrique involuntaire, Thomas Szasz, P.U.F., 1978.

5. Theologie de la medecine, Thomas Szasz, Payot, 1980.

6.Psychiatry: The Science of Lies, Syracuse University Press, 2008.

7. Le Mythe de la psychotherapie, Thomas Szasz, Payot, 1981.

8. Lou Marinoff [Wikipedia article]

9. Le Mythe de la maladie mentale, Thomas Szasz, Payot, 1986.

About Free Will – Σχετικά με την Ελεύθερη Βούληση

This knol deals with the problem of Free Will [english].
Αυτό το άρθρο πραγματεύεται το πρόβλημα της Ελεύθερης Βούλησης [Greek].


Introduction to the problem of free will

One of the main problems that have troubled philosophers after the discovery of the notion of “physical laws” is the questions of whether we have that thing that is called “free will” or not. In this article I attempt to clarify what great philosophers thoughts about the subject were and present some of my own ideas on it.

When we say that we have “free will” we mean that we somehow decide on our own on what to do and that we do not behave because something else made us behave like that. However from the time that science started discovering physical laws in the universe, a big question came to being: if everything in the universe behaves according to physical laws, then so does our mind. So are our thoughts and behaviour already determined by those physical laws? Are we really masters of our selfs or we just have the illusion of being free to decide?

The implications of free will’s existence

Science tells us that if we know the initial conditions and the physical laws governing a system, then we can predict its future behavior. Thus, if we know the initial conditions of our universe and all the physical laws that apply to its components, then we can predict everything that happens in it including the human behavior. Even in the quantum mechanics world of statistics, prediction is still there. Saying that there is a 60% possibility for A to happen and 40% for B to happen, is still a prediction (although there are many objections of whether the statistical results of quantum mechanics are a result of an inherent limitation of the universe or of an inherent limitation of our science). So is everything we do pre-determined? Or do we have a free will? If science predicts that a system, for example our brain, will behave in way A with a possibility of 98% and in way B with a possibility of 2% the question that arises is: can we behave in way C if we wish to do so?

Much of Arthur Schopenhauer’s writing is focused on the notion of will and its relation to freedom.

Is Hitler guilty for killing so many people or not since it was predetermined that he would do such a thing? We like to believe the first. Everybody likes to think that we are beings that decide for themselves. Everybody likes to think that we do have free will. That is why we feel responsible for our actions and we punish other people for their mistakes: it is because they are “their” mistakes and not the result of some physical processes in their brain upon which we have no power at all! Everybody is responsible for his actions because they are the result of his own free will! However it is impossible to prove that in the context of our current knowledge. Atheists like to think that they have thought that God does not exist on their own and not because it was pre-defined to do so. Skeptics tend to believe that they are skeptics because they thought it through and not because some initial conditions and laws made them to think that way.

Few people have thought about the implications of the existence of “free will”. In a fully “materialistic” (materialism is a dogma believed by many scientists today, who forget that noone has proved or shown that only matter exists in the cosmos) world of universal and absolute physical laws that define everything there is no room for free will (this is not the same as Carl Jung’s unconscious, which sometimes dictates the conscious actions: even in this case free will exists). The only way to justify the existence of free will is to base that existence on “something” that does not follow the physical laws as modern physics thinks of them (which are the ones which make everything predictable in the universe). The foundations of free will must be set on “something” that does not follow the logic “initial conditions” + “physical rules” => predictable behaviour. In that way free will opens the path for the only being that could deviate from the path of the physical laws – God (as a “first cause”)…Maybe our own free will is the result of us being made by God…

I think that the problem of “free will” points directly to the heart of the science and its limits we tend to forget: IF only matter and physical laws exist in the Universe, then given the initial conditions of the cosmos, everything is pre-determined. However everyone of us feels that he/she desides what he does. Our “feeling” of “decision” actually is totally NOT-compatible with the materialistic view of the world that some (not all – see Francis Collins for example) scientists have.

We must know that if we accept dogmatically that only protons and electones exist in the universe, then it is not possible to see anything spiritual in that universe even if it stood in front of our eyes. We should remember that metarialism is a dogma (and an extreme one to be exact) and not a proven case.

Only the acceptance of something like the thing called “spirit” by the ancient philosophers can lead to a free will which can bend the all-powerful natural laws and bypass them. Thus, the dualistic philosophical dogma (it is a dogma again, unfortunately we cannot be sure at this point) seems more well justified than the dogma declaring that nothing else than matter exists in the cosmos.

Greek article

Ο άνθρωπος θεωρεί τον εαυτό του ιδιαίτερο πλάσμα. Ανεξάρτητα του αν πιστεύει κανείς ότι είμαστε κάτι διαφορετικό από τα ζώα ή απλά μια βελτιωμένη έκδοση τους, ο καθένας μας κατανοεί ότι έχουμε κάτι “ανώτερο”. Το βασικότερο στοιχείο που καθορίζει αυτή την εντύπωση είναι η λεγόμενη “ελεύθερη βούληση” που διαθέτουμε. Όλοι μας συμπεριφερόμαστε όπως εμείς θέλουμε και όχι όπως ο “Θεός” ή κάτι “άλλο” θέλει αυτό. Πιστεύουμε ότι δεν είμαστε μαριονέτες, αλλά ανεξάρτητα όντα με τη δική τους ανεξάρτηση θέληση. Κατά πόσο είναι αλήθεια αυτό; Έχουμε πράγματι δική μας θέληση;

Η βασική αντίρρηση στην ύπαρξη ελεύθερης βούλησης είναι η ίδια η επιστήμη. Στόχος της επιστήμης είναι η ανακάλυψη των φυσικών νόμων που ισχύουν στο σύμπαν. Αν γνωρίζεις την αρχική κατάσταση ενός συστήματος και τους νόμους που ισχύουν σε αυτό, τότε μπορείς να προβλέψεις το μέλλον του συστήματος. Η “πρόβλεψη” μέσω της επιστήμης της κίνησης των πλανητών ή της πορείας μιας σφαίρας που βλήθηκε από ένα όπλο, θέτει ένα πρόβλημα που πολλοί μας προτιμούμε να παραβλέπουμε: αφού και εμείς ανήκουμε στο φυσικό σύστημα του σύμπαντος και υπακούμε στους φυσικούς νόμους, μήπως όλα όσα κάνουμε είναι ήδη προκαθορισμένα; Αν κάποιος γνωρίζει όλες τις αρχικές συνθήκες του σύμπαντος κόσμου και όλους τους νόμους που διέπουν την κίνηση κάθε σωματιδίου ή κύματος μέσα σε αυτό, θα μπορεί να προβλέψει με ακρίβεια το μέλλον του; Η επιστήμη μας αυτό λέει. Η λογική πάνω στην οποία έχουμε χτίσει την επιστήμη μας αυτό λέει. Μπορεί να έχουμε την ψευδαίσθηση ότι “αποφασίζουμε”, αλλά στην ουσία απλά βιώνουμε αυτό που ήδη έχει προκαθοριστεί από τις αρχικές συνθήκες του σύμπαντος και τους φυσικούς του νόμους. Πόσο αλήθεια μπορεί να είναι ένα τέτοιο σενάριο;

Αν κανείς εξετάσει το ζήτημα με καθαρά επιστημονικά εργαλεία, δεν μπορεί παρά να παραδεχθεί ότι η μοίρα μας είναι προκαθορισμένη. Δεν μπορούμε να θεωρούμε ότι η επιστήμη μας δίνει τη δυνατότητα να προβλέπουμε τα πάντα αν γνωρίζουμε τις αρχικές συνθήκες και τους εφαρμοζόμενους νόμους, αλλά όχι την ανθρώπινη συμπεριφορά. Δεν μπορούμε να ισχυριζόμαστε ότι όλα είναι προβλέψιμα, αλλά όχι η κίνηση των μορίων και ατόμων στο ανθρώπινο σώμα και εγκέφαλο. Αν υπάρχουν καθολικοί φυσικοί νόμοι, τότε αυτοί θα ισχύουν και για τα ανθρώπινα πρωτόνια και ηλεκτρόνια. Ακόμα και η κβαντική στατιστική πιθανότητα του να βρεθεί ένα σωματίδιο σε ένα σημείο με πιθανότητα 40% και σε ένα άλλο σημείο με πιθανότητα 60% είναι πρόβλεψη. Αυτό σημαίνει ότι θα μπορούμε να προβλέψουμε και τι πιθανότητες έχουμε να πούμε “γειά σου” αντί για “τι κάνεις;” ένα πρωινό και μάλιστα με ακρίβεια δεκαδικού; Ή μήπως να προβλέψουμε τι πιθανότητες υπάρχουν να χωρίσουμε τη γυναίκα μας μετά από έναν έντονο τσακωμό; Η κβαντομηχανική έβαλε ένα όριο στο κατά πόσο μπορούμε πράγματι να προβλέψουμε με ακρίβεια τη θέση και την ταχύτητα ενός σωματιδίου, αλλά χωρίς να θίγει στο ελάχιστο το αξίωμα της ύπαρξης γενικών (καθολικών) φυσικών νόμων που είναι τελικά κατανοήσιμοι από τον άνθρωπο οι οποίοι βοηθούν στην πρόβλεψη της μελλοντικής συμπεριφοράς ενός συστήματος. Επιπλέον πρέπει να θυμόμαστε ότι ακόμα δεν έχει διαφαφηνιστεί το τι ακριβώς σημαίνει η στατιστική “αβεβαιότητα” που εισάγει η κβαντομηχανική – αν αυτή συνδέεται με μια εγγενή αδυναμία της επιστήμης όπως εμείς την έχουμε θεμελιώσει ή αν έχει σχέση με μια αδυναμία που υπάρχει εγγενώς στο σύμπαν. Και τι σημαίνει όμως ότι υπάρχει μια αδυναμία να προβλέψουμε ακριβώς τη θέση ενός σωματιδίου εξαιτίας μιας ατέλειας της αντίληψης μας για τον κόσμο; Σημαίνει μήπως ότι αν με κάποιον τρόπο αυτή η ατέλεια αρθεί, θα μπορέσουμε να κάνουμε ακριβή πρόβλεψη χωρίς πιθανοτικές παραμέτρους;
Η ουσία είναι ότι κάθε έκφανση της επιστήμης (ακόμα και η στατιστική κβαντομηχανική) αναφέρεται σε συστήματα τα οποία μπορούμε να αναλύσουμε για να βγάλουμε συμπεράσματα για τη μελλοντική τους συμπεριφορά. Με άλλα λόγια κάθε έκφανση της επιστήμης σήμερα μας λέει ότι θεωρητικά θα μπορούσαμε να βγάλουμε συμπεράσματα πρόβλεψης και για την ανθρώπινη συμπεριφορά. Ανεξάρτητα τους είδους της γραφής (δεκαδικοί, ποσοστά, άρρητοι αριθμοί), η ουσία είναι πως η μοίρα μας είναι γραμμένη κάπου και απλά περιμένει να τη διαβάσουμε…

Το ερώτημα λοιπόν είναι: αν το μέλλον ενός φυσικού συστήματος όπως το σύμπαν (ή ο ανθρώπινος εγκέφαλος) είναι προκαθορισμένο, υπάρχει χώρος για αυτό που αποκαλούμε “ελεύθερη βούληση”; Αν είναι προκαθορισμένο ότι υπάρχει πιθανότητα κατά 98% να κάνουμε το Α και κατά 2% να κάνουμε το Β, μπορούμε εμείς τη στιγμή που θα έρθει η ώρα να δράσουμε να “αποφασίσουμε” να κάνουμε το Γ; Τα όσα ανέφερα παραπάνω δεν αφήνουν κανένα περιθώριο για ελεύθερη βούληση. Είναι ανόητο το να πιστεύουμε πως η επιστήμη μπορεί να μας αποκαλύψει την αλήθεια για τα πάντα (άρα και να κάνει προβλέψεις), αλλά πως η ανθρώπινη συμπεριφορά θα μένει πάντα εκτός πεδίου έρευνας της λόγω της “ελεύθερης βούλησης”. Και όμως σχεδόν όλοι μας πιστεύουμε ότι έχουμε ελεύθερη βούληση. Θεωρούμε ότι οι πράξεις μας είναι δικές μας και όχι απλά το αποτέλεσμα φυσικών διεργασιών στον εγκέφαλο μας πάνω στις οποίες δεν έχουμε καμία εξουσία. Αυτός άλλωστε είναι και ο λόγος για τον οποίο τιμωρούμε τους άλλους για τα λάθη τους: γιατί είναι “δικά τους” λάθη και όχι κάτι προκαθορισμένο. Πως όμως όλοι μας έχουμε αυτή την “ψευδαίσθηση”; Γιατί έχουμε αυτή την “ψευδαίσθηση”; Με τα δεδομένα τα οποία έχουμε αυτή τη στιγμή δεν μπορούμε να αποφανθούμε οριστικά για το αν η ελεύθερη βούληση είναι μια πραγματικότητα ή μια ψευδαίσθηση. Από τη στιγμή που δεν έχουμε ακόμα κατανοήσει πως λειτουργεί ο ιός της γρίππης, είναι αλαζονικό να πιστεύουμε ότι μπορούμε να μιλάμε για το αν υπάρχει ή όχι ελεύθερη βούληση. Η τελική ετυμηγορία αποτελεί αυτή τη χρονική στιγμή θέμα πίστης. Το περίεργο όμως είναι ότι στο θέμα αυτό όλοι σχεδόν οι άνθρωποι συμφωνούν – άθεοι, αγνωστικιστές και θεϊστές το ίδιο. Τι δημιουργεί αυτή τη συμφωνία;

Αυτά που γράφω αυτή τη στιγμή έχουν προκαθοριστεί; Ή ξαφνικά “αποφάσισα” να τα γράψω; Θέλω να πιστεύω το δεύτερο. Όταν κάποιος φονεύει κάποιον άλλον το κάνει επειδή το αποφάσισε ή επειδή ήταν προκαθορισμένο από πριν να τον σκοτώσει; Ο Χίτλερ φταίει που σκότωσε τόσους ανθρώπους ή δεν φταίει επειδή ήταν προκαθορισμένο από το σύμπαν να το κάνει; Η ποινική μας δικαιοσύνει πιστεύει το πρώτο. Κάποιος είναι άθεος επειδή έτσι είναι προκαθορισμένο να σκέφτεται ή επειδή έτσι αποφάσισε με το δικό του μυαλό να σκέφτεται; Οι άθεοι θέλουν να πιστεύουν το δεύτερο. Κάποιος συγγραφέας δημιουργεί ένα αριστούργημα που σκέφτηκε ή απλά καταγράφει σε ένα χαρτί σκέψεις στο μυαλό του ήδη καθορισμένες από την πρώτη στιγμή δημιουργίας του σύμπαντος; Όλοι μας που τον διαβάζουμε θέλουμε να πιστεύουμε το πρώτο. Κάποιος είναι ορθολογιστής επειδή είναι η μοίρα του να σκέφτεται έτσι ή επειδή έτσι σκέφτηκε ο ίδιος; Θέλει να πιστεύει το δεύτερο…
Ο καθένας είναι ΥΠΕΥΘΥΝΟΣ για τις πράξεις του ακριβώς επειδή αυτές είναι το αποτέλεσμα της ελεύθερης του βούλησης. Στο κρίσιμο ερώτημα του αν υπάρχει ελεύθερη βούληση, όλοι οι άνθρωποι απαντάνε με μια φωνή “ναι”! Έτσι πιστεύουμε. Δύσκολα όμως το αποδεικνύουμε…

Αυτό που λίγοι όμως έχουν αναρρωτηθεί είναι το ποιες είναι οι επιπτώσεις της ύπαρξης τελικά “ελεύθερης βούλησης”. Σε ένα σύμπαν όπου όλα καθορίζονται από καθολικούς φυσικούς νόμους, η ελεύθερη βούληση δεν μπορεί να υπάρχει. Για να υπάρξει πρέπει να αρύεται την ίδια της την ύπαρξη από κάτι “εκτός” του σύμπαντος κόσμου, από κάτι που δεν ανήκει στο σύστημα του κόσμου τούτου και κατά συνέπεια δεν υπακούει στη λογική “αρχικές συνθήκες + φυσικοί νόμοι => καθορισμός μελλοντικής συμπεριφοράς”. Για να υπάρξει “ελεύθερη βούληση” πρέπει να υπάρχει κάτι που δεν υπακούει στους φυσικούς νόμους που κάνουν τα πάντα προβλέψιμα. Η ύπαρξη της ελεύθερης βούλησης ανοίγει το δρόμο για την παραδοχή της ύπαρξης αυτού που συχνά αποκαλείται “Θεός”…Ίσως η ελεύθερη βούληση του καθενός μας να είναι αποτέλεσμα του ότι έχουμε φτιαχτεί καθ’ εικόνα και κατ’ ομοίωση Του…

Αν λοιπόν στο σύμπαν υπάρχουν μόνο φυσικοί νόμοι και ύλη που υπακούει σε αυτούς, τότε δεν υπάρχει “ελεύθερη βούληση”. Ωστόσο η αίσθηση μας είναι ότι εμείς αποφασίζουμε για αυτό που κάνουμε. Η λύση του αινίγματος πρέπει να αναζητηθεί στο δόγμα του υλισμού το οποίο διαπνέει πολλούς (όχι όλους) επιστήμονες σήμερα. Και πρέπει να θυμόμαστε ότι ο υλισμός είναι δόγμα και όχι αποδεδειγμένη υπόθεση…