Engraved stone artifacts are important clues to the history of human culture and cognition. Incisions on the cortex (soft outer layer) of flint or chert flakes are known from Middle and Lower Paleolithic sites across Europe and the Middle East. However, it can be difficult to determine the action that created an incision: was it an accidental scrape or purposeful engraving? To address this issue, Majkic and colleagues created an interpretive framework that allows researchers to classify the structure and patterns of engraved cortexes and cross-check these attributes with a list of possible causal actions.
They tested this methodology with an
engraved flake from the cave site of Kiik-Koba in Crimea. The many stone
artifacts at the site are associated with Neanderthal remains and date to
around 35,000 years ago. Following microscopic examination of the grooved lines
on the flint cortex, the researchers concluded that the incisions represent
deliberate engravings that would have required fine motor skills and attention
to detail. These engravings appear to have been made with symbolic or
If this interpretation is correct,
this engraved flake would join a growing list of signs that Neanderthals
engaged in symbolic activities, along with evidence of intentional burial,
personal ornaments, and other decorated objects. This has implications for the
question of when and how many times this sort of cultural expression has
evolved among hominin populations. The researchers hope to hone their framework
further for use with artifacts of varying ages and cultural contexts. (1)
But not dead ones.
Lingering still inside us.
Engraved into our very souls.
No need for any analysis or
interpretation. Just look within yourself. Every part of you is governed by
primate instincts. Every thought you have stems from an otherworldly need of
belonging. Belonging to something bigger than you. Something shared with all
other humans and with the universe itself.
Long before you were born…
You used to be alive.
Part of everything.
Try to remember.
You were primitive back then.
Not yet cursed with knowledge…
A raw untamed river. Carving its way through the stone…