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You’ll have heard of Pavlov’s dogs, conditioned to expect food at the sound of a bell. You might not have heard that a scarier experiment – arguably one of psychology’s most unethical – was once performed on a baby.

In it, a 9-month-old, at first unfazed by the presence of animals, was conditioned to feel fear at the sight of a rat. The infant was presented with the animal as someone struck a metal pole with a hammer above his head. This was repeated until he cried at merely the sight of any furry object – animate or inanimate.

Organs from "scratch"! NOT!

The “Little Albert” experiment, performed in 1919 by John Watson of Johns Hopkins University Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, was the first to show that a human could be classically conditioned. The fate of Albert B has intrigued researchers ever since. (1)

Science likes to experiment.
But a human would never experiment on another human.
A human would never make a baby cry just to “learn” something.

Eugenics works! So why not use it? A hard problem begging for a simple answer...

We may find it normal for science to be “ethically neutral” today.
But this was not always the case.

There was a time when science and religion was one.
There was a time when science and humanity was once one.
Now they have followed separate paths.

We have “human sciences” only because science is not humanitarian…

Goalkeepers, penalties, patterns, science...