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Researchers from the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital of McGill University have proven it is possible to increase or decrease our enjoyment of music, and our craving for more of it, by enhancement or disruption of certain brain circuits.

In order to modulate the functioning of fronto-striatal circuits, the researchers from the lab of Robert Zatorre used a non-invasive brain stimulation technique, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which uses magnetic pulses to either stimulate or inhibit selected parts of the brain. In this case, the researchers applied TMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Brain imaging studies have shown that stimulation over this region modulates the functioning of fronto-striatal circuits, leading to the release of dopamine, a key neurotransmitter in reward processing.

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The researchers found that, compared to the control session, liking of music, psychophysiological measures of emotion and participants’ motivation to buy music were all enhanced by excitatory TMS, while all of these measures were decreased by inhibitory TMS. (1)

Loving someone. Forcing him not to love someone.

Changing things.

Because if you change something then it will… change.

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Imagination. From the whole brain...

If someone loves someone and you change that then he will… not love her. That is obvious – a tautology. The point is: why care? Does that even mean anything? What do we want to demonstrate with that? We are what we choose to do. Not we are forced to do. Free will is free as long as it is… free.

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Attention. Memory. Brain. The important things.

The most difficult concepts to understand are the simple ones.

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